Microchip technology applications for blood group analysis
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KeyWord:microchip technology, microfluidics, microarray technology, blood group typing
Hongjun Gao Jiangsu LIBO Medicine Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Jiangyin, Jiangsu 214400, China.
Gradimir Misevic Department of Informatics, University of Brest, Brest 29238, France; Department of Research and Development, Gimmune GmbH, Baarerstrasse, Zug 6301, Switzerland.
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      Blood group analysis techniques are some of the most in demand immunological applications in clinical transfusion praxis and organ transplantation. In order to aid the advance towards higher throughput and increased sensitivity, analytical solutions dealing with a minimal amount of blood samples and the miniaturization of diagnostic equipment using microchip technologies have been evolving into an optimal solution. Here we review fabrication technologies for various types of microstructure on microchips, related operating procedures, and characterization approaches. Our focus is on examples of microchip technology and instrumentation used for blood group analysis ranging from classical serological methods of glycoprotein detection and solid phase assays, to nucleic acid amplification techniques. Molecular typing using microchip-based techniques is emerging as a supplement to standard serological methods. Microchip technology will play its key role to support blood group analysis at the molecular scale by using microliters of blood samples for extremely sensitive, quantitative, and high throughput analyses.